Ambivalent Compliance and Critical Pragmatism. Some commentators, however, deny that things have gotten worse for people with disabilities since selective abortion of fetuses with impairments has gained popularity e.
Women were disproportionately denied the direct benefits that might come from study participation. When a pregnant woman is decisionally impaired or incompetent, however, there are extra layers of ethical complexity to contend with, because her treatment typically affects not only her, but also her child to-be.
According to the social model, on the other hand, disability is inherently a relational property: Prior to birth, most pregnancies will involve medical interventions such as genetic testing, ultrasound screening, prescriptions to control various symptoms and risks, and—with increasing frequency—technological assistance for conception.
Furthermore, while individual parents may be free to decide whether or not to avail themselves of tests, which tests we make available will almost surely reflect and entrench existing social norms that tell us what count as valuable and disvaluable traits Sparrow Baylis, Rodgers, and Young argue that the pertinent conflict is typically between pregnant women and others who presume authority regarding the appropriate care of the fetus, and that it is not in any case typically a conflict between the mother and the fetus.
Further ethical issues may arise in cases where, prior to serious decision impairment due, for example, to massive brain injury or brain deaththe pregnant woman has autonomously expressed her preference to continue to gestate and give birth.
Interventions the use of sedatives, episiotomies, ether, and forceps were designed and advertised as solutions to make childbirth safer and more successful even though early medical practices may not have been safer.
Giving birth was made out by physicians to be a process that was damaging to mothers and their babies. Even if forced interventions on competent pregnant women are virtually never justified, there may be good moral reasons why pregnant women ought not to refuse various interventions in particular cases.
The case of Angela Carder, a year-old woman who had cancer that had gone into remission but recurred during her pregnancy, brought these issues to a head. While we typically take refusals of treatment to be sacrosanct, our respect for autonomy does not extend to recognizing an unlimited right to demand particular interventions at will.
By looking at the past we gain perspective on pregnancy and birth attitudes in the 21st century, as it is only recently that modern medicine has become intricately involved in the birth process.
Also at that time, the industrial revolution was in full swing leading to crowded unclean living conditions in factories and cities.
They point out that they are not committed to viewing fetuses as persons. Ina woman from Texas became braindead at 14 weeks pregnant, and was kept on life-support against her and her family's wishes, until it was established that her fetus was also brain dead Ecker Rather, the problem lies in a culture of birth that is expert-centered rather than patient-centered.
Such women are often particularly socially vulnerable and frequent targets of manipulation; they face multiple barriers to having their reproductive and sexual health needs recognized and met e.
Moreover, disclosure of inclusion practices and rates in clinical trials is unreliable, and recent reviews fail to confirm reports of significant progress in diverse inclusion Woodruff et al.
How effective modern medical knowledge and expertise actually is, has been an issue that has been debated in modern times. Moreover, the fetus generally has no legal standing that would allow its interest to override the pregnant woman's interest Sperling In light of such considerations, Press and Browner and others have questioned the extent to which choices to test are really informed and autonomous, and whether women are really prepared for making the difficult decisions that they may confront after testing.
These narratives may aim to de-medicalize the notion of normalcy in pregnancy and birth, or centralize the knowledge and competence of midwifery e.
Even if forced interventions on competent pregnant women are virtually never justified, there may be good moral reasons why pregnant women ought not to refuse various interventions in particular cases.
Moreover, many have argued that as our culture increasingly values and takes for granted the power to control whether our offspring have particular traits, a kind of bottom-up eugenics will be instituted.
Ultrasound screening for various morphological anomalies and the Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Test MSAFP that screens for trisomy chromosomal disorders such as Down syndrome are routine parts of prenatal care; indeed, ultrasound screening does not even require formal informed consent from patients.
We also need to consider the consequences of prenatal testing for genes that probabilistically raise the risk of developing a condition such as obesity or breast cancer rather than determining that it will be present.The medicalization of pregnancy and birth takes many forms.
North American births typically involve a variety of technological interventions, regularly including labor-inducing drugs, spinal epidurals, fetal monitoring, and—in roughly. Apr 13, · Over the past few centuries childbirth has become increasingly influenced by medical technology, and now medical intervention is the norm in most Western countries.
By the 17th century, pregnancy and birth became a point of interest by the emerging medical community, starting what is now coined as the ‘medicalization of childbirth.’ By the early 20th century, most births, normal and complicated, became medicalized in developed countries.
Pregnancy is one of the most exciting and special part of a woman’s life. Now that you are pregnant your baby is growing, your body will be and is changing and so will your life.
Having a baby brings all sorts of different feelings. Mar 18, · Pregnancy and Childbirth Posted by medicalisationandwomen on March 18, May 11, A qualitative study of 30 women in Scotland, who elected to have a home birth, pointed out that basic choices such as environment, whom is present and.
Pregnancy is the fertilization and development of one or more offspring, known as an embryo or fetus, in a woman's uterus. It is the common name for gestation in humans. A multiple pregnancy involves more than one embryo or fetus in a single pregnancy, such as with twins. Childbirth usually occurs about 38 weeks after conception; in women who have a menstrual cycle length of four weeks, this is .Download